October 20, 2014

Chandra L. Mattingly

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Of Bugs, Blooms & Vittles
Fruits of fall PDF Print E-mail
Written by Chandra L. Mattingly   
Wednesday, September 24, 2014 2:41 PM

Pumpkins. Crisp red and golden apples. Foliage so vibrant it's unbelievable. The scent of smoke in the air, be it from campfires or burning leaves.

This is fall, as are foggy mornings, brisk temperatures and yellow school buses.

But my fall also includes fresh-fallen ripe persimmons, honeybees buzzing in fall asters and goldenrod, orange monarchs sailing on the wind, and slick coats lengthening into shaggy ones on my horses and pony.

Folk lore would have you believe persimmons don't ripen until after frost, but the first delectable ripe fruit fell from our persimmon trees Sept. 16 this year. I've been picking up a few ripe ones most days since. Over the years, I've learned the trees vary considerably: some produce ripe fruit as late as December and January. Fruit ranges from golden with thin skins to brown, sometimes with leathery skins.

And as anyone knows, an unripe persimmon will pucker your mouth and is most unpleasant! But we've also found one tree which has very bland ripe fruit, with none of the ambrosia-like sweetness of a good ripe persimmon.

Folks who haven't tried this native fruit are welcome to contact me in the next few weeks for local tree locations (cmattingly@registerpublications.com.)

The asters and goldenrod blooming now are providing nectar and pollen for honeybees and other native pollinators. We've enjoyed monarch butterflies on our purple asters this fall, unlike last year when we saw very, very few of the creatures. From releasing three monarchs we raised inside in 2013, we've raised nearly 50 this year and have about 20 chrysalises to go.

Plants which provide fall food for these insects help support them on their migration south, as do the milkweeds and honeyvine plants which feed monarch caterpillars. Email or phone me (812-438-2011) for honeyvine and possibly milkweed seeds. Or go to Monarch Watch's website and order plants for next spring!

Many gardeners have mowed down and even tilled their gardens by now, but ours continues to produce. The tomatoes are slowing down and the cucumbers have given up, but the zucchini and sweet peppers are so abundant I need to freeze the surplus (and perhaps make stuffed peppers this week.) The bush green beans planted July 6 have produced a small crop, and the Ambrosia corn planted the same day has ears with white silks, so is almost ready to pick.

My late-planted broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower didn't do as well; most of the plants disappeared, eaten perhaps by a box turtle or bunnies who ignored the blood meal sprinkled around them. But we have loads of volunteer kale, as well as cabbage from the spring planting.

Our Brussels sprouts are forming, but will continue to mature into late fall and perhaps winter. I've stripped the lower leaves from the plants to encourage the sprouts, and the chickens enjoyed the feast of green leaves. These are one vegetable that sweeten after frost, and can't be compared to store-bought sprouts.

Soon we'll dig the carrots and sweet potatoes as well as some of the leeks. Other leeks will stay in the ground into winter, to be used as needed.

That about wraps up our fall garden, aside from the flowers – cosmos, glads, sunflowers and cannas – and the weeds. There's a patch of sweet clover that will bloom next spring, and a few volunteer buckwheat plants, both good nectar plants for the bees. And in the home garden, the caladiums I got on sale are brightening shady areas with their colorful leaves, as are the wild sunchokes the sunnier areas with their yellow blooms – another food provider for the bees.

Hopefully my honeybees are taking full advantage of all these weeds I left for their enjoyment! (OK, truth here, I just didn't get the weeds pulled this summer. But now, thanks to the bees, they'll stay till they quit blooming!)

Last Updated on Wednesday, September 24, 2014 4:22 PM
 
Join the flight to save the monarchs PDF Print E-mail
Written by Chandra L. Mattingly   
Thursday, September 04, 2014 10:07 AM

If the monarch caterpillars in our living room are any indication, monarch butterflies' wintering population should be up this year.

Those who love the tropical insects' orange and black stained glass appearance hope so. In a life cycle that stretches from Mexico to Canada, these delicate creatures are dependent on just a few species of plants. Unfortunately, large-scale farming, pesticide use and human development have wiped out many stands of milkweed upon which monarchs' caterpillars feed.

Last winter (2013-2014) the wintering monarch population was the smallest it's ever been since monitoring began, according to Monarch Watch. Efforts even have begun to classify the species as endangered. In our screened butterfly cage, only three monarchs hatched to be released. This year we've already released over a dozen, mostly females.

Milkweeds used to be present along the fence rows and other waste areas dividing and bordering farmers' fields. Some even grew among the crops, as milkweeds are resistant to some pesticides. But stronger pesticides can be used with genetically modified corn and soybeans, and the milkweed occurrence has dropped as a result.

Drought in Texas and other areas hasn't helped, limiting availability of food for caterpillars and adults. Each spring, the butterflies which survive the winter begin to migrate north. As adults lay their eggs, the resulting monarchs fly farther north, and produce another generation which flies even farther. Eventually, as the days grow shorter and fall approaches, instinct kicks in and the last generation flies south to winter near Angangueo, Mexico.

But the initial butterflies heading north must have milkweeds or honeyvine (Ameplamus albidus) plants upon which to lay their eggs, and nectar-producing plants upon which to feed. The milky sap of milkweeds makes monarchs resistant to predators, for it makes them poisonous to most vertebrates, including birds.

Milkweeds (various asclepius species) are easy to identify, with their upright growth habit, milky sap and hourglass-shaped flowers. Honeyvine is more likely to be confused with other vines, yet in our experience receives far more monarch eggs than ascepius species in our area.

At this time of year, mature honeyvine can be identified by the pods hanging from the vines. The flowers occur in round white clusters, have a strong sweet scent and could be called half-hourglasses in shape. Young vines tend to be upright until they reach 6 inches or so, and are stiffer than other vine species.

When weeding, PLEASE don't pull up any honeyvines without checking for the white dots which are monarch eggs (smaller than the tip of a pencil) or the striped monarch caterpillars. The monarch population needs whatever help we can provide right now.

Monarch Watch sells milkweed plants as plugs, and provides free milkweed plants to schools and non-profits - with plants available now for fall planting. Some states have begun planting highway corridors with milkweeds and other plants attractive to pollinators. (Perhaps we could all suggest this to our state legislators!)

Meanwhile, the Dearborn County Soil and Water Conservation District's Backyard Conservation Program offers butterfly weed, an orange-flowered asclepius, and a few other native plants each spring. The district may begin a pollinator-seed program next spring; many of the same plants feed honeybees as well as native pollinators and butterflies.

Folks (and teachers) who would like to raise monarchs can find instructions for doing so on the Monarch Watch site: monarchwatch.org. It takes about a month for an egg to result in a butterfly, and those eggs laid now will become the butterflies that migrate south. Monarch Watch also sells tags so you can tag your adult butterflies in hopes they will be spotted in Mexico and you'll learn if they made the trip successfully.

Folks who would like honeyvine seeds may email me at cmattingly@registerpublications.com with email addresses and/or phone numbers (or call me at 812-438-2011 if you don't have email) and I will contact them when the seeds ripen in a few weeks.

Meanwhile, enjoy the monarchs you see fluttering past; last year the sight here was extremely rare. Let's hope it never becomes nonexistent.

Last Updated on Thursday, September 04, 2014 10:28 AM
 
Senses shimmer with summertime delights PDF Print E-mail
Written by Chandra L. Mattingly   
Thursday, August 14, 2014 9:52 AM

Which is better, to bite into an ear of sweet corn that went straight from the garden into the boiling water, or to slice and devour a sun-ripened red tomato?

Ah, summertime, when the garden is in full swing and the eating is good.

This week we're eating our first homegrown Silver Queen corn, though a Rising Sun friend had mature corn over a month ago! He managed to plant in just the right early window and got corn up despite the cool spring weather.

We got our first Early Girl tomato July 3, and are absolutely inundated with round red – and a few orange – globes. There's nothing like a plateful of ripe tomatoes with cottage cheese – or slices of an Orange Jubilee with chicken, swiss or mozzarella cheese, salad dressing and homegrown oregano on sandwich bread.

I started more varieties of tomatoes this year than usual, though Early Girls are my husband's favorite. The Tigerellas are a smaller, slightly striped variety, which cracked consistently while we were getting frequent rains. Now that the rains are more spaced out, they're staying whole – and they do have a good flavor. I'm still weighing in on my favorites, but the Big Boy and Abe Lincoln are way ahead of the Super Tasty and Supersteak – though the latter has decent flavor in its huge tomatoes should you want to grow them for bragging rights. They're great for jumbo hamburgers, but a little large for eating out of hand.

Sungold and my own saved-seed red cherry tomatoes are probably what I eat most, simply because they're so productive. And a cherry tomato is easy to pop into my mouth as a quick snack!

With all the rains, the green beans have produced like gangbusters, finally slowing for this last picking. A second planting is up and almost ready to bloom, but this first planting suddenly has loads of buds and blooms coming so may not get pulled up after all. And for once, the bean beetles have not overloaded the older plants.

We did lift onions and shallots this week, and I pondered how appropriate is that verb as I gently tugged the round and elongated globes from the ground. They'll lay out under the carport roof for about a month to cure, though some will be sauteed and eaten much sooner. I've taken to growing Utah Spanish and Red Long of Tropea onions, the latter growing into tall red ovals. I start both those and the Ambition red shallots from seed in early February.

In the emptied area we planted two varieties of broccoli seedlings, Windsor and Nutribud, plus Snow Crown cauliflower and savoy cabbage. And lettuce seeds. The brassica were started indoors July 8 and should have time to mature, depending, always, on weather.

As usual, by the time I got done I was grubby and slick with sweat. That's part of summertime, too, I guess, and as sensual in its way as all the gustatory sensations!

Soon I'll plant beet, spinach, kale, collard and carrot seeds for fall and overwintering crops, as well as garlic cloves for next summer's harvest. This year's garlic, on trays in the garage, has dried about long enough to be stored for winter. Maybe I'll get some braided this year!

Meanwhile, the spring broccoli continues to send out side shoots, the most recent of which got blanched for broccoli, bacon, and raisin salad. We got our first large head of Gypsy broccoli June 29 from seeds planted in late March, and our first cabbage head a few days earlier from the same planting date.

This year and last I got a cabbage mix from Pineseed which provides a variety of red and green cabbages, including early and larger, later maturing plants. One of the heads that's ready now is absolutely HUGE, though it doesn't look quite as big wearing the cowboy hat my daughter suggested. I'd guess it weighs about 10 lb., though.

Sunflowers line three sides of our big garden, and the chatter of goldfinches is constant now. The seeds have no chance to mature for winter birdseed! But the birds and the flowers are a delight, and I take some of the heavy stalks indoors to enjoy. I make sure I grow the kind that DO have pollen so they also are good for honeybees and other pollinators.

Other flower varieties make a walk through the backyard a scentsational trip. The oriental lilies are done for the year, but the moonflowers have started with their overwhelming fragrance, the tea roses provide a lovely scent from time to time, and the slightly-dusty scented phlox and sweet pink resurrection lilies are blooming as well.

Black-eyed Susan, gaillardia and purple coneflowers vibrate with color, and salvia, balloon flower and dragonhead provide shades of blue and purple. And at the very back of the yard, the apiary is abuzz as honeybees wing their way in and out of their hives with loads of nectar and pollen.

Ah, summertime. A sensual experience in so many ways.

 
Sow summer seeds soon for fall food PDF Print E-mail
Written by Chandra L. Mattingly   
Tuesday, July 08, 2014 4:12 PM

Is it too late to plant a garden?

Not at all! While it might be harder to get cool-weather crops such as lettuce, spinach and beets to germinate, there are other vegetables that will pop right out of the ground and get to work.

And even the cool-temperature crops may germinate if covered with a shade cloth and kept moist, or started inside under lights for transplanting.

So, what should you plant first? Sweet corn. I usually am able to get a late crop of sweet corn, even full-season varieties such as Silver Queen, if I plant it by July 15. You can soak the seeds overnight and water them in well to get a quicker start.

Bush green beans planted now also have enough time to mature, as do cucumbers. Even summer squash are likely to produce some edibles, though it's probably too late for winter squash and watermelon.

Carrots will mature in what's left of the summer but can be tricky to get up, especially in clay soils. Try planting the seeds in broad rows, water, then cover the area with a wide board. Check the area daily, keeping it moist, and remove the board as soon as seeds germinate. Keep watering regularly until the little carrots are well established.

Or you can try covering your carrot seeds with a mixture of sand and soil to keep the ground from crusting. Again, keep the area watered.

The same treatment works with beets, but only if the soil is cool enough. Beet seeds won't germinate well at higher temperatures. Yet if you can get them up, they make a great late summer/fall crop.

Peas planted now may produce come fall, and you can choose standard or snap peas. I've always had better luck with the latter, especially as fall crops. Plan on some sort of support; even so-called non-staking varieties do better with light fence or string to keep the delicate vines off the ground.

Even potatoes can still be planted and will produce taters, though perhaps not large ones. The difficulty with late potatoes is the hungry insects; they never seem to go after the early potatoes as voraciously. There are organic products that work on potato beetles, with limitations.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium which is effective with early larval stages. Beauveria bassiana is effective against all larval and adult stages, but doesn't work well in temperatures above 80 degrees F. Both are organisms which occur naturally.

Cabbage and broccoli seeds also can be planted directly in the garden for fall crops, but should be watched for pests and nibbling bunnies. In our garden, which essentially has been organic for decades, wasps and other predators carry off the cabbage worms for the first half of the summer to feed their young. Once those young are raised, we begin seeing cabbage worms on the brassica.

At that point, you can squash the caterpillars, pick them off and feed them to your chickens, or spray Bt or rotenone. If you use rotenone or other pesticides, be sure to dust or spray early in the morning or in the late evening, when honeybees and other pollinators are less active.

Speaking of honeybees, my home hives are thriving, as frequent rains are keeping the white yard clover blooming.

We took honey off in late June, a sweaty job I wrote about in advance in an earlier blog, and ended up with about 360 lb. of honey from four overwintered beehives (up to six hives at the moment with divisions.)

While I did the heavy, clothes-drenching work of removing honey supers from the hives, volunteers at Jim Orem's Spring Sling in Milan did most of work involved in extracting: decapping the combs, loading and running the extractor, unloading the extractor, and cleaning up cappings, etc.

So here's thanks to Jim Orem, Brianna Johnson, Allison and Matt Knue, Chris and Darrell Hosmer, and Donnie Flannery and his son Seth Flannery. Others there when we were included Randy Salatin and daughters Mary and Emma Salatin, Ted Cooley, Virginia Tidman, Jim Rector and Bert Fischesser.

Chandra L. Mattingly is a staff reporter for The Journal-Press and The Dearborn County Register. In her spare time she cultivates a large garden, and tends bees, chickens and horses.

Last Updated on Thursday, August 14, 2014 9:55 AM
 
Sow summer seeds soon for fall food PDF Print E-mail
Written by Chandra L. Mattingly   
Tuesday, July 08, 2014 3:38 PM

Is it too late to plant a garden?

Not at all! While it might be harder to get cool-weather crops such as lettuce, spinach and beets to germinate, there are other vegetables that will pop right out of the ground and get to work.

And even the cool-temperature crops may germinate if covered with a shade cloth and kept moist, or started inside under lights for transplanting.

So, what should you plant first? Sweet corn. I usually am able to get a late crop of sweet corn, even full-season varieties such as Silver Queen, if I plant it by July 15. You can soak the seeds overnight and water them in well to get a quicker start.

Bush green beans planted now also have enough time to mature, as do cucumbers. Even summer squash are likely to produce some edibles, though it's probably too late for winter squash and watermelon.

Carrots will mature in what's left of the summer but can be tricky to get up, especially in clay soils. Try planting the seeds in broad rows, water, then cover the area with a wide board. Check the area daily, keeping it moist, and remove the board as soon as seeds germinate. Keep watering regularly until the little carrots are well established.

Or you can try covering your carrot seeds with a mixture of sand and soil to keep the ground from crusting. Again, keep the area watered.

The same treatment works with beets, but only if the soil is cool enough. Beet seeds won't germinate well at higher temperatures. Yet if you can get them up, they make a great late summer/fall crop.

Peas planted now may produce come fall, and you can choose standard or snap peas. I've always had better luck with the latter, especially as fall crops. Plan on some sort of support; even so-called non-staking varieties do better with light fence or string to keep the delicate vines off the ground.

Even potatoes can still be planted and will produce taters, though perhaps not large ones. The difficulty with late potatoes is the hungry insects; they never seem to go after the early potatoes as voraciously. There are organic products that work on potato beetles, with limitations.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium which is effective with early larval stages. Beauveria bassiana is effective against all larval and adult stages, but doesn't work well in temperatures above 80 degrees F. Both are organisms which occur naturally.

Cabbage and broccoli seeds also can be planted directly in the garden for fall crops, but should be watched for pests and nibbling bunnies. In our garden, which essentially has been organic for decades, wasps and other predators carry off the cabbage worms for the first half of the summer to feed their young. Once those young are raised, we begin seeing cabbage worms on the brassica.

At that point, you can squash the caterpillars, pick them off and feed them to your chickens, or spray Bt or rotenone. If you use rotenone or other pesticides, be sure to dust or spray early in the morning or in the late evening, when honeybees and other pollinators are less active.

Speaking of honeybees, my home hives are thriving, as frequent rains are keeping the white yard clover blooming.

We took honey off in late June, a sweaty job I wrote about in advance in an earlier blog, and ended up with about 360 lb. of honey from four overwintered beehives (up to six hives at the moment with divisions.)

While I did the heavy, clothes-drenching work of removing honey supers from the hives, volunteers at Jim Orem's Spring Sling in Milan did most of work involved in extracting: decapping the combs, loading and running the extractor, unloading the extractor, and cleaning up cappings, etc.

So here's thanks to Jim Orem, Brianna Johnson, Allison and Matt Knue, Chris and Darrell Hosmer, and Donnie Flannery and his son Seth Flannery. Others there when we were included Randy Salatin and daughters Mary and Emma Salatin, Ted Cooley, Virginia Tidman, Jim Rector and Bert Fischesser.

Chandra L. Mattingly is a staff reporter for The Journal-Press and The Dearborn County Register. In her spare time she cultivates a large garden, and tends bees, chickens and horses.

 
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